Vietnam Offshore Development Service | Differences between Java and Kotlin | HACHINET SOFTWARE
If you're an Android developer, you've probably heard or used one of two languages, Java and Kotlin, but should you be familiar with these languages? Do you really know the similarities and differences between these two languages? And most importantly, do you really know the language Google recommends for developing applications on the Android operating system?
This article will share some of the information we have gathered about the basic similarities and differences between these two languages. Let's find out together! First, let's get an overview of these two languages.
1. What is JAVA?
With the spread of Java advances, many configurations have been built to fit different types of platforms. For example, J2EE for enterprise applications and J2ME for mobile applications.
Applications: Websites, Android applications, scientific applications, electronic trading systems, financial applications, games, etc. Computer applications include Eclipse, Netbeans, IntelliJ, etc.
2. What is Kotlin?
Kotlin is a programming language for modern cross-platform applications, fully compatible with Android, and developed by JetBrains, the company behind the IntelliJ Java IDE. However, this is not a separate language but is seen as a new way to use and develop Java code.
Kotlin works seamlessly with Java. So you can easily add Kotlin with java to take advantage of its useful library, which is a great programming language.
3. Features of Java and Kotlin
Now, let's take a look at the characteristics of the programming language Kotlin.
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・ It is an object-oriented language
The first thing to check is that it is an "object-oriented language".
You can do object-oriented programming like Java and C++, so you can work with the same idea.
・ Kotlin is "concise"
Kotlin also has the characteristic of being "concise".
Kotlin is sometimes referred to as "a language that simplifies Java," and its simplicity is one of the selling points of the language. Since it is sometimes referred to as a modern language, there is no need for a semicolon or typing.
The program is designed to be simple to write, and you can write highly readable source code.
・ JVM language
Java has the feature of running on a "JVM (Java Virtual Machine)" so that it can be run on any platform or hardware.
In fact, Kotlin is also a language that runs on that JVM. Therefore, Java programs, Java libraries, frameworks, etc. can be diverted.
Kotlin is also said to be 100% interoperable with Java, and its high compatibility is one of its features and a major strength.
Java is a language that supports object-orientation. Java implements object-oriented programming features such as encapsulation, inheritance, and poly as well as firm.
This object-oriented feature allows Java to achieve high extensibility, reusability, and maintainability through componentization.
・ OS independent
Java is characterized by being OS or platform-independent.
Java is said to belong to this general-purpose language. A general-purpose language is a programming language that allows you to create anything and can be used in various fields.
Historically, Java was originally a language developed as part of a consumer electronics development project. There are a wide variety of home appliances, and the language used to develop such home appliances required a programming language that could create versatile programs. And the resulting programming language is Java.
Java continued to evolve and was applied to various fields with the catchphrase "Write once, run anywhere", and Java was characterized by being platform-independent.
・ Abundant library
There are many pre-made libraries in Java.
There are many libraries for developing development execution environments such as JDK, graphical applications such as Swing, server-side applications such as JSP / Servlet, and network applications. It is said that this makes it easier to reduce development man-hours. Another attraction is that all libraries are provided free of charge.
Java is a high-performance language with high versatility and environment independence. Therefore, there are many advantages as a development language. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages caused by being a high-performance programming language, such as fields that Java is also possible but not good at, and a lot of man-hours required for the development.
4. The differences between Java and Kotlin
4.1 Kotlin is simpler and more flexible than Java
Kotlin has a much shorter syntax than Java, which greatly reduces the amount of code you need to write.
When writing a VideoGame class using Java, the programmer needs to write a lot of code using getter, setter, equals, hashCode, toString, etc. For Kotlin, all the above methods are combined into a single line of data class code.
The language also has easy-to-understand features such as easy-to-read, straightforward, and flexible syntax.
With Kotlin, a function consists of a single command line and can be written very concisely as follows:
fun sum (x: Int, y: Int) = x + y
4.2 Kotlin and Java variables
Kotlin supports type inference. That is, you don't have to explicitly specify the data type of the variable, but Java does.
Kotlin eliminates the need for programmers to specify variable data as in Java, and Kotlin displays two new data types, Var and Val.
Var is a representation of a variable. Variables declared in Var type can be changed. On the contrary, Val represents value. That is, variables declared with the Val type are final and cannot be modified.
Kotlin doesn't allow you to assign a null value to a variable or return value. If you really want to assign it, you can declare the variable with a special syntax. In addition, Kotlin allows programmers to avoid the difficult problem of NullPointerExeption.
4.4 Extension Functions
Kotlin brings many new features such as extensions, smart casts, especially functional programming.
You can add functionality to a class without inheriting it again. For example, these are Android third-party library classes and, of course, cannot be edited directly.
Kotlin also supports a lot of functional programming. For example, Higher-order functions, Anonymous functions, etc.
4.5 Asynchronous processing
Java provides the ability to create Multithreaded in the Background to handle a Background task. However, managing them is a very complex task. Kotlin, on the other hand, allows you to create multiple threads that support coroutines for long, intensive operations. Coroutines were introduced only as an experimental feature of Kotlin 1.1, allowing developers to write simpler asynchronous code.
Java Thread is very limited because it knows the Thread Pool. The number of threads is limited at one time. Coroutines are almost free and you can start thousands of coroutines at the same time.
In addition, you can run parts of your code asynchronously in the same way you would run regular sync code. This eliminates the need to handle complex and verbose syntax when writing asynchronous code. This is common when working with mobile applications.
4.6 Functional Programming
Functional Programming is a form of programming paradigm.
FP is called functional programming. Same as sequential or object-oriented programming (OOP).
Functional Programming is a functional programming method that avoids changing the value of data. Independent processing blocks are easy to reuse and are useful for detecting logic changes and program errors.
4.7 Compile time
The Kotlin language runs at about the same speed as Java due to its similar code byte structure. However, with Kotlin support, code that uses lambdas can run faster than similar code mentioned in Java.
In fact, the Kotlin application development process reduces compile-time and greatly increases productivity. It gives the impression that Kotlin holds the future better than developing applications in Java.
The Java language can be used for development in a variety of areas, including the web, embedded applications, and big data. Kotlin is primarily used for application development on multiple Android and iOS platforms.
Recently, there are some no-code development tools that do not require programming. Specifically, Xamarin, Cordova, ReactNative, Flutter, Outsystems, etc.
This time Hachinet has briefly summarized the features of Kotlin and Java, but there are still other differences between Kotlin and Java.
This article will give you a better understanding of the basic differences between Java and Kotlin. We hope it helps people get more knowledge and useful information to understand why Google chooses Kotlin as the primary language for Android application development.
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